was one of the first to see FGM as a public health issue, and WHO adopted her approach. The classification into four types has been developed and reviewed over the years; the one used here is the most recent version from 2007
. It can be found with minor wording changes in all official publications. The procedure described in the Hosken report (see About FGM) is equivalent to type III.
All other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for nonmedical purposes, for example, pricking, piercing, incising, scraping, and cauterization (by burning of the clitoris and surrounding tissue; scraping of tissue surrounding the opening of the vagina (angurya
cuts) or cutting of the vagina (gishiri
cuts); introduction of corrosive substances or herbs into the vagina to cause bleeding or to tighten or narrow the vagina; and any other procedure that can be included in the definition of female genital mutilation noted above)